Spain was in the throes of revolution, with anti-clerical liberals arrayed against clerical conservatives.  The restored Society had barely returned to Spain when it was again expelled in 1822.  Readmitted, it was suppressed by royal decree in 1834; restored in virtue of a concordat with the Holy See in 1851; expelled a third time in 1868; and permanently legalized in 1880.

The suppression of the Jesuits in the Philippines covering the whole Spanish Empire (1767) as well as the various European monarchies is a complex topic. Analysis of the reasons is complicated by the political maneuvering in each country which was not carried on in the open but has left some trail of evidence. The papacy reluctantly went along with the demands of the various Catholic kingdoms involved, and advanced no theological reason for the suppression. The power and wealth of the Jesuits with their influential educational system was confronted by adversaries in this time of cultural change in Europe, leading to the revolutions that would follow.  Monarchies attempting to centralize and secularize political power viewed the Jesuits as being too international, too strongly allied to the papacy, and too autonomous from the monarchs in whose territory they operated.  Soon after their restoration by Pope Pius VII in 1814 they slowly began returning to most of the places from which they had been expelled.

Soon, after one its short-lived restorations, the Jesuit Province of Spain was specifically asked by Queen Isabela II to return to the Philippines to undertake, or rather to resume the evangelization of Mindanao and Sulu.  The Spanish Jesuits accepted the commission, along with the attached condition that they would not try to recover any of the property confiscated by the government from the Old Society.  On 4 February 1859, 6 priests and 4 brothers under the leadership of Fr. Jose Fernandez Cuevas set sail from Cadiz for Manila.  They landed on 14 April, being received  with great charity by the Augustinians, who had them stay in their house at Guadalupe until they could set up for themselves.

A grant from the government enabled them to purchase a house at the corner of Anda and Arzobispo streets in the walled city, and this became and remained the central residence of the Philippine Mission until it was destroyed in the recapture of Manila by the American forces in 1945.

Soon after the Jesuits’ arrival, the city council of Manila put in a request that they take charge of the Escuela Municipal, a public primary school for boys.  Father Cuevas at first refused on the plea that his orders were only to take charge of the Mindanao missions; but Governor Norzagaray finally persuaded him to accept by taking responsibility of explaining the step to the home government.
On 10 December 1859 Don Lorenzo Moreno Conde, the schoolmaster then in charge of the Escuela Municipal, formally handed it over to the new Jesuit faculty, consisting of Father Jose Ignacio Guerrico, prefect of studies, Fathers Pascual Barado and Ramon Barua, teachers, and Brother Venancio Belzunce, prefect of discipline.  They found that there were 33 boys registered but only 23 in actual attendance.  Nine days later they moved the school to a building across Anda Street from the mission house; by that time the enrollment had risen to 76.  On 2 January 1860, it stood at 120 and the following March at 170.  The school closed at the end of June and reopened in August with an enrollment of 210.

The statutes drawn up by Father Cuevas and approved by the governor (15 December 1859) provided for an elementary school of five grades, namely, infima, inferior, media, superior and suprema.  The subjects taught in the first 3 grades were Christian doctrine, good manners and right conduct, oral and written Spanish, arithmetic, geography and history.  The last two grades were devoted to Spanish literature and composition, algebra, geometry, trigonometry and elementary science, besides Christian doctrine, good manners and right conduct.  Boys in the upper grades could take lessons in French, music and drawing at the option of their parents.  Latin, philosophy and the higher sciences were to come later: the school was at first strictly a “primary” school.

It should be noted that the Escuela Municipal was a public school primarily for Spanish boys, since the city council which supported it represented at that time the Spanish residents of Manila.  However, the Jesuits from the very beginning of their administration opened the school to Filipinos and boys of other nationalities, so that by the end of the 19th century nine-tenths of the student body were Filipinos or mestizos.   

In 1860 Father Cuevas made an exploratory trip to Mindanao, and two years later the first mission station of the restored Society in that island was opened by Father Guerrico and two lay brothers at Tomantaka, Cotabato Province.  A second station was founded the same year at Tetuan, Zamboanga Province, and a third at Isabela on the island of Basilan.  All three were in Moro territory.  In 1868 work among the pagan tribes was begun with the foundation of the mission in Davao.  Since the Spanish government wanted the Jesuits to have complete charge of Mindanao, the Recollects began turning over to them the largely Christian towns on the north coast island, starting with Dapitan in 1870.

The Moro commonwealths of southern Mindanao and Sulu had lost much of their former prosperity and power.  They could no longer raid at will through the islands, for western technology now enabled the Spanish government to oppose them with faster ships and deadlier weapons.  Father Guerrico at Tomantaka observed that the Moros were quite willing to sell their young slaves and even their children in times of scarcity.  With funds collected for the purpose, he and his successors ransomed a number of these waifs.  Their idea was to organize a model Christian community in the heart of Moroland and thus convert that people by living example rather than by words.  While they were growing up, the boys lived, studied and worked under the Jesuits in one compound of the “reduction”, the girls in a separate compound under a community of the Religious of the Virgin Mary.  As soon as they came of age, the young people were suitably matched and married.  Each couple was given a house and lot, a piece of farmland and tools. Gradually, a peaceful and prosperous agricultural community, free from recurrent famines and feuds that plagued the area, formed around the Tomantaka mission.  It attracted the admiration and interest of influential Moros and might have led to greater things had not the disturbances consequent upon the Revolution of 1896 intervened.  After the establishment of American Rule, the experiment was not resumed.

Neither the Jesuits of the Old Society nor the Recollects who took their places after the expulsion did much to evangelize the pagan tribes of the rugged east coast of Mindanao, the upper reaches of the Agusan River, the Davao hinterland or the Bukidnon plateau.  The Jesuits of the Restored Society did.  Using essentially the same methods as those by which their confreres had achieved the Christianization of Bohol, Leyte and Samar two centuries earlier, they penetrated far into the interior of the island and induced the semi-nomadic tribal peoples to settle down in stable farming communities.  Many towns and villages in these areas still bear the names which these pioneer missionaries had given them.  In the intervals between missionary journeys the father wrote detailed reports about their work to the superior of the Philippine mission and to that of the Province of Aragon.  Those of general interest were collected and published at intervals between 1877 and 1895; and the resulting 10 volumes of Cartas de Filipinas constitute, even today, an indispensable source not only for the historian of Christian missions, but for the social and cultural anthropologist.

The Mindanao Jesuits reported to the provincial of Aragon because it was to Aragon that the Philippine Mission was attached when the Spanish Jesuits were divided into several provinces in 1863.  That same year the royal government issued a decree instituting public school system in the Philippines, and providing for government support of a normal school for men under Jesuit direction.  The preliminary studies which led to this decree had been made some years previously in Manila by a committee in whose deliberations Father Cuevas had been invited to take part.  The decree incorporated many of his suggestions; in particular, that the medium of instruction in the system should be Spanish, a proposal which he advocated strenuously, in particular, in the face of strong opposition.  The opposition came from a powerful segment of the Spanish community which opposed the teaching of Spanish to the Filipinos on the ground that it would unite the Filipinos against Spain, put them on an equality with Spaniards, and place in their hands a potent weapon against the mother country.  The fact that the Jesuits advocated giving to Filipinos the same opportunities for education as Spaniads put them in the same camp as Rizal and other Filipino patriots who will later agitate for the same thing.  And later, when the revolution broke out, the Jesuits in Spanish eyes shared the blame with the Filipino patriots for having caused it.

On 24 January 1865, the Escuela Normal de Maestros opened with an enrollment of 69 in a rented building not far from the Escuela Municipal.    Father Francisco Baranera was the first rector and Fathers Jacinto Juanmarti and Pedro Llausas the first professors.  In 1886, the school moved to its own quarters in the Ermita district.  By 1901, when it ceased to be a government institution, it had conferred to the title of maestro asistente on 340 graduates, that of maestro on 1,693 and that of maestro superior on eight.

The street running past the Escuela Normal was a one time called Calle del Observatorio and later Padre Faura Street.  This was appropriate, for the Escuela Normal property was shared by another Jesuit institution, the Manila Observatory, of which Father Federico Faura was the first director.  The beginnings of the Observatory go back to 1865, when two scholastics of the Escuela Municipal , Francisco Colina and Jaime Nonell, published in a local paper observations on a typhoon which had recently passed near the city.  The observations were taken by Colina with some meteorological instruments which he had put together himself.  They suggested the possibility that the approach of a typhoon might be forecast in time to save lives and property.  The interest of the business community of Manila was aroused and enough money was subscribed to purchase the universal meteorograph, a continuously recording instrument designed by the Italian Jesuit, Father Angelo Secchi.

When the metorograph arrived, it was assembled and operated by another scholastic interested in scientific work, Federico Faura.  After completing his theoloical studies, Father Faura worked for a time in the Jesuit observatories at Stonyhurst and Rome.  He returned to the Philippines in 1878 as director of the Manila Observatory, a post which he held until his death in 1897.  In 1879 he issued his first typhoon warning.  These warnings became a regular and valued service of the Observatory thereafter.  To extend the scope and increase the accuracy of the service, the Spanish government in 1884 made the Observatory a state institution with a network of subsidiary stations throughout the archipelago.  A seismic section was added to the Observatory in 1880, a magnetic section in 1887, and an astronomical section in 1899.

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